Because revealed because of the past studies (Xiao ainsi que al

Fourth, it was observed that DJF AMO exhibits clear interdecadal fluctuations around the early 1970s (switching from positive to negative) and mid-1990s (switching from negative to positive) (Geng et al., 2017 ), and it has a fairly similar in-phase interdecadal relationship with mega-ENSO. , 2015 ), the warm (cold) AMO might lead to an increased (decreased) epochal winter haze frequency over Beijing and its surroundings by suppressing (facilitating) occurrences of in situ cold air via a quasi-barotropic planetary-scale Rossby wavetrain emanating from the North Atlantic. However, the actual decreased epochal WHDCock sucking during P2 (corresponding to warm AMO) and increased epochal WHDCock sucking during P1 (corresponding to cold AMO) allow us to speculate that AMO could play a relatively minor role in modulating WHDBj on decadal timescales compared to mega-ENSO. Furthermore, it was found that AMO can modulate variations in PDO/IPO on decadal timescales through atmospheric bridges (Si and Ding, 2016 ; Kosaka, 2018 ; Zhang et al., 2018 ). Therefore, the existence of appreciable interactions between DJF AMO and mega-ENSO, if any, should be ascertained. These issues are deserving of further investigations in future studies.


We’re pleased in order to Zhiwei Zhu and you may Jian Cao away from Nanjing School of information Research and you may Technical having helpful talk and you may technical assistance inside running the brand new numerical design. I give thanks to this new private reviewers for their useful comments and you may suggestions. So it performs is supported by the fresh Atmospheric Pollution Command over the newest Finest Minister Financing (Give No. DQGG0104), the new National Natural Technology First step toward Asia (Grant No.41790471), new Federal Preliminary research Creativity (973) program out of Asia (Offer No. 2012CB417205), and also the Proper Priority Search System from Chinese Academy of Sciences (Offer Zero.


Research S1 Shape S1. December–March (DJF) mixture differences away from ocean facial skin heat (SST) (shady, °C) inside the period ranging from (a) pre-P1 (1961–1971) and P1 (1972–1996) (pre-P1 without P1) and you can (b) P2 (1997–2012) and you may post-P2 (2013–2018) (P2 without post-P2) after deleting the fresh linear development. The newest purple traces for the (a) and you will (b) show the latest western Pacific K-figure together with eastern Pacific triangle-shape regions, that are deployed inside the determining brand new mega-ENSO index considering Wang et al. (2013).

Figure S2. DJF composite differences of (a) surface relative humidity (shaded, %), (b) surface air temperature (shaded, °C), (c) surface wind speed (shaded, m·s ?1 ), (d) sea-level pressure (shaded, hPa), (e) planetary boundary layer height (shaded, m), and (f) air temperature between 850 and 1,000 hPa (shaded, °C) between years of more and less frequent wintertime haze days in Beijing (WHDBlowjob). The stippled areas indicate the values exceeding the 90% confidence level. The pentagram delineates the location of Beijing. The more (less) frequent WHDBlowjob is defined with a detrended WHDCock sucking value >0.8 (

Contour S3. The latest climatological-mean (1981–2010) DJF 500-hPa geopotential level (traces, gpm) and 850-hPa wind (vectors, m·s ?step one ). The fresh new pentagram delineates the spot regarding Beijing, while the gray shaded town denotes brand new Tibetan Plateau.

Contour S4posited DJF anomalies from (a) body cousin dampness (shaded, %), (b) surface air temperature (shaded, °C), (c) skin wind speed (shaded, m·s ?1 ), (d) sea-top stress (shady, hPa), and you will (e) air temperature anywhere between 850 and you can step 1,000 hPa (shaded, °C) to possess pre-P1 (1961–1971). The beds base several months try 1961–2018.

Contour S5. DJF substance improvement away from five hundred-hPa omega (outlines, 10 ?2 Pa·s ?1 ) in months between P1 (1972–1996) and you can P2 (1997–2012) (P2 minus P1) after deleting the newest linear pattern. Viewpoints that will be significant at ninety% rely on top was shaded. The new pentagram distills the spot of Beijing.

Figure S6posited DJF defects from SST (shaded, °C) for post-P2 (2013–2018). Brand new reddish traces show the fresh new western Pacific K-contour while the eastern Pacific triangle-contour places, that are deployed within the identifying brand new mega-ENSO index based on Wang mais aussi al. (2013). The base period is 1961–2018.

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